The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.
Hypertension is the case where the force of the blood against the artery wall is too high. Hypertension (HTN) is otherwise known as High Blood Pressure (HBP). This is a common problem found in most of the adults. Nowadays, hypertension is seen in youngsters. There are various reasons for hypertension. There is no particular symptom we can identify for hypertension but when the blood pressure range is too high it affects the body severely. There are two types of high blood pressure as Primary (essential) High Blood Pressure and Secondary High Blood Pressure. High Blood Pressure causes many problems in the human body as heart diseases, kidney diseases, obesity and other factors. The main causes for hypertension can be listed as excess salt in diet, alcohol use, smoking and unbalanced diet.
- Track 1-1Primary hypertension
- Track 1-2Secondary hypertension
- Track 1-3Hypertension and Obesity
- Track 1-4Causes of HTN
- Track 1-5Hypertension in Children
The hypertensive people will never be aware of their elevated level of blood pressure until the pressure reaches a peak level. Thus, constant monitoring of the blood pressure is required. Adults above 25 age group should have a constant check-up of their blood pressure levels. The hypertensive people go through various tests to find out their blood pressure levels. Initially, normal screening is done to check the blood pressure level then the patient's previous medical history is referred. If the patient is hypertensive then they undergo a physical examination. After which the person is checked whether he has any risk of Cardiovascular Diseases.
- Track 2-1Screening and Identification
- Track 2-2Medical History
- Track 2-3Physical Examination
- Track 2-4Assessment of CVD Risks
One of the strongest muscle in the human body is the heart which is just the size of a fist. In general, the heart is a pump that supplies blood to the entire human body. The average heart beat per minute is 70 times and this rate can double during exercise or during extreme emotions. This heart is vulnerable to breakdowns and failures. This heart failure leads to numerous diseases together known as Cardiovascular diseases. Some of the CVD are coronary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, congenital heart disease and inflammatory heart disease.
- Track 3-1Coronary Heart Disease
- Track 3-2Hypertensive Heart Disease
- Track 3-3Inflammatory Heart Disease
- Track 3-4Rheumatic Heart Disease
- Track 3-5Congenital Heart Disease
- Track 3-6Global Cardiovascular Risk Assessment
Cerebro refers to the brain and vascular refers to arteries and veins. Cerebrovascular means blood flow to the brain. Cerebrovascular disease is a combination of defects in two places as brain and blood. Cerebrovascular diseases include all disorders that affect the brain temporarily or permanently. Cerebrovascular diseases include stroke, stenosis, deep vein thrombosis, atherosclerosis, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and aneurysm. A stroke occurs commonly with little or no warning. The most common form of stroke is ischemic stroke and the dreadful stroke is known as hemorrhagic stroke. TIA is a temporary event and it doesn’t cause any permanent damage to the body. When there is a build-up of fat and cholesterol in the arteries it leads to plaque formation. This plague is known as atherosclerosis and when this blockage is severe it is known as stenosis. An aneurysm is an effect which develops because of HTN or atherosclerosis in which the blood vessel to the brain weakens which causes bulging up of the blood vessel in that area.
- Track 4-1Stroke and its Types
- Track 4-2Stenosis
- Track 4-3Deep Vein Thrombosis
- Track 4-4Atherosclerosis
- Track 4-5Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
- Track 4-6Aneurysm
Target organ damage usually refers to the damage caused to the organs wherever the circulatory system feeds. The main target organs are kidney, heart, brain, and eyes. Hypertension causes early changes in organ systems as left ventricular hypertrophy, proteinuria, renal failure, retinopathy and vascular dementia. There are many steps involved in the act of target organ damage as platelet activation, endothelial activation, increased thermogenesis, changes in the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system (RAAS) and collagen turnover.
- Track 5-1Retinopathy
- Track 5-2Vascular Dementia
Aldosteronism is a hormonal disorder that leads to hypertension. The excessive secretion of the hormone aldosterone disturbs the balance of sodium, potassium, and water in the blood. The production of excess secretion of aldosterone in the adrenal gland causes the loss of potassium and retaining of sodium alone. The excess sodium takes in water which increases blood volume and blood pressure. This can be cured by taking proper medications, change of lifestyles and surgery when required. The decrease in potassium level leads to weakness in the body, excess secretion of the urine and also muscle cramps. The important cause for aldosteronism is Conn’s syndrome. In children and young adults, there is a type of primary aldosteronism called glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism which causes high blood pressure. It is confirmed as aldosteronism if the High blood pressure is associated with low potassium levels in the screening.
- Track 6-1Types and Classification
- Track 6-2Treatment Aids
Aortic coarctation means narrowing of the aorta which is the large blood vessel that leaves from the heart. When narrowing occurs the heart must pump the blood very fast for it to flow through the narrowed part of the aorta. This is a condition from childbirth (congenital) and it leads to other heart defects. This case doesn’t have symptoms in most cases and not known until adulthood. The important symptom seen in adulthood is High Blood Pressure. A rare case of aortic coarctation if severe is heart failure in babies.
- Track 7-1Classification
- Track 7-2Signs and Symptoms
- Track 7-3Diagnosis
- Track 7-4Prevention and Treatment
- Track 7-5Prognosis
The adult can be categorized as young age adults (age: 18-35), middle age adults (age: 36-55) and old age adults (age: 55 years and above). All the three groups are prone to hypertension. Nowadays hypertension has become one of the major factors for causing death. Globally the prevalence rate of high blood pressure as of reported by WHO for age group above 25 is 40% as of 2008 and it tends to increase every year. Men are more prone to Hypertension than women in almost all areas. However, in Africa, the statistics are equally distributed. Managing this High Blood Pressure range has become a difficult task. The understanding of blood pressure chart and reading can reduce the risk of Hypertension. Maintaining a proper dietary control after a certain age limit also reduces the risk.
In order to reduce the morbidity and mortality due to hypertensive cases, the anti-hypertensive therapy is followed for almost 40 years. The anti-hypertensive treatment is less cost-effective. The benefits of treating different stages of hypertension are well established. The benefits of therapy will be greater for younger individuals with any range of elevated blood pressure than older individuals. It is because the vascular complications will be more prone to older individuals. The effect of the drug can be shown clearly in younger individuals with mild hypertension and absolutely low risk of developing cardiovascular diseases risks. Strokes, Coronary artery diseases, Congestive cardiac failure and Renal failure tend to reduce with the use of drugs. The commonly used drugs for the therapy are diuretics, calcium chloride blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, adrenergic receptor antagonists, vasodilators, renin inhibitors, aldosterone receptor antagonists, alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, and endothelin receptor blockers.
- Track 9-1Drugs Used
- Track 9-2Dosage and Type of Medication
- Track 9-3Inhibitors Types
- Track 9-4Drug Therapy Benefits
At the entrance of the glomeruli of the kidney, there are certain sets of specialized cells that encircle the arterioles which secrete an enzyme called Renin into the blood. Renin secreting cells composing of juxtaglomerular apparatus are sensitive to change in blood pressure. When the blood flow to the kidneys reduce the secretion of renin is high. This may lead from loss of sodium and water or by narrowing of the renal artery. During this process renin acts as a catalyst in the formation of a plasma protein called angiotensinogen into a decapeptide (consisting of 10 amino acids) called as Angiotensin I. Another enzyme in the serum converts this decapeptide enzyme into an octapeptide enzyme called Angiotensin II that stimulates the secretion of Aldosterone that in turn stimulates salt and water reabsorption by the kidneys and also constricts the small arteries. ACE inhibitors which block the formation of Angiotensin II are used for the treatment of high blood pressure.
- Track 10-1Activation
- Track 10-2Cardiovascular Effects
- Track 10-3Local Renin-angiotensin System
- Track 10-4Fetal Renin-angiotensin System
- Track 10-5Clinical Significance
Non-pharmacological interventions mainly focus on weight reduction, discontinuation of tobacco, restriction of caffeine, salt restriction, moderation of alcohol consumption, reduction of cholesterol intake and exercise which helps to reduce the elevated blood pressure and improve the efficacy of pharmacological agents. For further treatment of hypertension in future Non-pharmacologic therapy is stressed on. This therapy can be tried upon if the person is not prone to previous myocardial infarction or stroke, kidney disease, Diabetes mellitus, left ventricular hypertrophy and other CVD risks. Excess intake of salt, sodium, reduced intake of potassium, reduced intake of calcium, lower intake of magnesium, excess intake of fats are the main causes of hypertension as per the study. There is no surgical cure for hypertension but there can only be dietary control and medications. The psychological factors that increase blood pressure are, increase verbal confrontation, job stress, lying and decrease slow talk, pets, laughing, visual, scent therapy, biofeedback, and relaxation therapy.
- Track 11-1Clinical Recommendation for Managing HTN
- Track 11-2Nutritional Restriction
- Track 11-3Recommended Life-style Modification
- Track 11-4Non - pharmacological Therapy
- Track 11-5Other Life-style Intervention
Hypertensive patients tend to develop many other diseases in their body. Comorbidities included the combination of two or more diseases other than hypertension. These diseases include heart diseases, kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus and blood vessel diseases. Inclusive of all the major effects of hypertension is cardiovascular diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. The patients with diabetes and hypertension are insulin resistant. The complication of hypertension is mainly categorized under two as macrovascular and microvascular. There are various organizations working on the medications to be followed for hypertensive patients to reduce the effects of other diseases. These organizations work on statistics in order to identify the patient's adherence to the medications. There are certain guidelines provided by National Institute for Healthcare and Excellence to be followed for the comorbidities patients.
- Track 12-1Combination of Diseases
- Track 12-2Patient Adherence and Comorbidity
- Track 12-3Study of Hypertensive Prescribing Practices
- Track 12-4Guidelines by National Institute for Health Care and Excellence
- Track 12-5Cardiovascular Medicine
In order to improve the everyday functioning of a person wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies are used for managing the stress, a person is undergoing. Usually, the term ‘stress’ has a negative impact thus stress management is referred to as ‘eustress’ which means helpful. Smoking and consumption of alcohol increase stress which in turn increases the blood pressure level. Stress in simple terms can be referred to as a persons physical and emotional effect towards change. There are both positive and negative sources of stress. Mostly stress refers to tending ourselves through a threatening situation. Stress is developed when we think demands are more than our coping abilities. Stress wouldn’t allow us to take any decision properly. Stress can be managed by changing the situation, the way we think (cognitive restructuring) and by the way we respond. Meditation and mindfulness are the best practices for stress management.
- Track 13-1Models
- Track 13-2Techniques
- Track 13-3Types of Stress
- Track 13-4SMI (Stress Management Intervention)
- Track 13-5Use of Physiological Tests
- Track 13-6Stress Management in Workplace
Some type of kidney diseases can cause High blood pressure. But, in most cases, it is High Blood Pressure that causes Kidney diseases. High blood pressure speeds up the loss of kidney in patients with kidney disorders. A simple blood test will give all the details about how much the kidney is damaged because of Hypertension. Nephrology includes acute kidney failure, chronic kidney failure, acute care nephrology, kidney stones, pediatric kidney disorders, polycystic kidney disorders but not limited to these alone. In patients with acute cases, there are transplantations of kidney or dialysis is advised. The transfer of organs is necessary when the kidney diseases have caused for the failure of kidneys completely. If the patient is not able to undergo transplantation then they are advised to undergo comprehensive renal replacement therapy known as dialysis. The doctors use many kinds of medication to help the people from hypertension and other allied diseases.
- Track 14-1Types of Kidney Failures
- Track 14-2Medications
- Track 14-3Transplantation and Dialysis
- Track 14-4Hypertension Management
The systolic and diastolic pressures are measured using a device known as Sphygmomanometer. In general, a person is said to have High Blood Pressure if the systolic pressure is greater than or equal to 140mm Hg and diastolic pressure greater than or equal to 90mm Hg. It is necessary to maintain a lower pressure because for every 20mm Hg of systolic pressure raises above 115 and for every 10mm Hg of diastolic pressure raises above 75. The different Hypertensive stages are normal, pre-hypertension, stage-1, and stage-2. In case of normal the systolic pressure remains below 120mm Hg and diastolic pressure remains below 80mm Hg and no treatment is required but regular check-up is needed so that the blood pressure is not raised. Pre-hypertension is a case where the systolic pressure is between 120-139m Hg and diastolic pressure is between 80-89mm Hg and it is a stage where the risk for developing hypertension is high. Stage-1, is where the systolic pressure is between 140-159mm Hg and the diastolic pressure is between 90-99mm Hg, the medications are followed as per pre-hypertension but also the use of drugs is advised in order to reduce the risk of developing heart diseases. Stage-2 is the severe case where the systolic pressure is 160mm Hg or higher and the diastolic pressure is 100mm Hg or higher. A very high dosage level of drugs is used in order to bring the blood pressure down in this case.
- Track 15-1Emergencies
- Track 15-2Normal
- Track 15-3Prehypertension
- Track 15-4Stage 1 Hypertension
- Track 15-5Stage 2 Hypertension
Acute hypertension - when the blood pressure is greater than 180/120mm Hg. This is classified as hypertension urgencies and hypertension emergencies. Hypertension urgency is not target organ damage oriented whereas hypertension emergency affects neurologic, aortic, renal, cardiac and pregnancy-related damages. As far now, hypertension emergency has been treated using intravenous antihypertensive pharmacotherapy based on the type of organ that is damaged. Hypertension urgency is also known as asymptomatic elevated blood pressure. Hypertensive emergency patients should be maintained in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) where they are closely monitored for signs of iatrogenic target organ damage. The neurologic damage in acute hypertension emergencies is acute stroke, seizure, and retinopathy. Depending on the presence or absence of the target organ damage acute hypertension is categorized as hypertensive emergency and hypertensive urgency.
- Track 16-1Classification
- Track 16-2Urgencies
- Track 16-3Emergencies
- Track 16-4Hypertensive Crisis
- Track 16-5Malignant Hypertension
Microalbuminuria means a term to describe a moderate increase in the level of urine albumin. Normally, kidney filters albumin, if there is presence of albumin in urine then it a sign of presence of kidney diseases. The term microalbuminuria is replaced as moderately increased albuminuria by KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes). The collection of conditions involving problems the body have with the hormone insulin is known as Diabetes. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce any insulin or produces very less insulin and when the body doesn’t respond properly to insulin. Diabetes is of two types as type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, the kind of diabetes seen in women during pregnancy is Gestational diabetes. A person affected with type 1 diabetes will not be able to produce insulin themselves and insulin must be supplied externally in order to maintain the blood sugar level. Most common type of diabetes affecting people is type 2 diabetes, where the person is insulin resistant or find any problem in producing enough insulin. This increased blood sugar level increases the blood pressure level. Thus, maintaining the blood sugar level is very important. Medications include balancing with foods and drinks of choice based on the individual. Depending on the type of diabetes and the insulin level in the blood the supply and medications about external insulin supply are decided.
- Track 17-1Micro albuminuria
- Track 17-2Types of Diabetes
- Track 17-3Diabetes Tests and Screening
- Track 17-4Controlling Strategies for Hypertension and Diabetes
Blood pressure is determined by two factors as the amount of blood the heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in the arteries. The more the blood is pumped by the heart and narrower is the artery the blood pressure is increased. High Blood Pressure is caused based on many risk factors as age, race, family history, being overweight or obese, not being physically active, using tobacco, addition of excess sodium (salt) in the diet, decreased amount of potassium in the diet, little amount of Vitamin D in the diet, consuming too much alcohol, and high stress. This High Blood Pressure leads to many complications such as heart attack or stroke, aneurysm, heart failure, weekend or narrowed blood vessels in kidneys, thickened narrowed or torn blood vessels in the eyes, metabolic syndrome, and trouble with memory and understanding. Important medications followed to treat high blood pressure are Thiazide diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers, Calcium channel blockers, and Renin inhibitors. Additional medications used for treating are alpha blockers, alpha-beta blockers, Central-acting agents, Vasodilators, Aldosterone antagonists. Dietary control can help in managing the risk of High Blood Pressure and make the body suitable for taking in of medicine.
- Track 18-1Types of Blood Pressure
- Track 18-2Risk Factors
- Track 18-3Complication
- Track 18-4Elevated PRA (Plasma Renin Activity)
- Track 18-5Endothelial Dysfunction
- Track 18-6Renal Sodium Retention
- Track 18-7Dietary Condition