Maha Sarakham Hospital, Thailand
Background: This review focuses on urban and rural parts of central Thailand, north Thailand, east Thailand, west Thailand, south Thailand and northeast of Thailand. A Literature Review of the prevalence, awareness, control of hypertension and risk factors among Thailand patients.
Methods: This literature review was guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute of Australia for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The following databases were search from multiple electronic databases and manual searches of journals were written in English and published in journals from 2005 to 2015, databases were queried using keywords for prevalence, awareness, control of blood pressure (BP) or hypertension (≥140 SBP and or ≥90 DBP) and risk factors among Thailand adults (≥18 years). A total of 62 articles were identified, of which 18 articles were found to be relevant for this study.
Results: Overall there is a prevalence of hypertension in Thailand. Significant differences in hypertension were noted between rural and urban parts of Thailand. Significant differences were also noted in the rural and urban Thailand for awareness about how to control hypertension. The risk factors associated with hypertension among Thailand patients include age, alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco, BMI, central obesity, consumption of low vegetables/ fruits, high consumption of dietary fat and salt, and sedentary activity.
Conclusion: The rural areas had lesser prevalence of hypertension are compared to urban areas. The differences in hypertension is due to socioeconomic conditions, risk factors and quality of life. The higher prevalence of hypertension in urban areas is leading to a rapid increase in cardiovascular disease risk factors among the urban poor and middle class in Thailand.